English Grammar Tenses – Exercise on Passive (No.4)

 

Exercise on Passive


Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.

1. I confirm the reservation.

2. We will deliver the goods immediately.

3. We arranged a meeting.

4. You can cancel the contract within five business days.

5. They execute all orders carefully.

6. You have made a mistake.

7. We are processing your order.

8. Jane had booked a flight.

9. He has not answered our letter.

10. She did not sign the contract.

Answers:

1. The reservation is confirmed;
2. The goods will be delivered immediately;
3. A meeting was arranged;
4. The contract can be cancelled within five business days;
5. All orders are executed carefully;
6. A mistake has been made;
7. Your order is being processed;
8. A flight had been booked;
9. Our letter has not been answered;
10. The contract was not signed

English Grammar Tenses – Exercise on If Clauses (No.3)

 

Complete the sentences.

1. If your conditions are competitive, we (place) an order.
2. If I had more time, I (do) a course in business English.
3. If we had known more about their culture, negotiating (be) easier.
4. If you (customize) your CV, your chances of getting a job will be better.
5. We (cancel) our order if you don’t deliver the goods by Friday.
6. If Brittany (speak) better English, she would apply for a job abroad.
7. If you (tell) me about the problem, I would have helped you.
8. I (let) you know if I weren’t satisfied.
9. If you execute the order carelessly, they (place / not) another order with you in the future.
10. If I were you, I (worry / not) about the presentation.

Answers:

1. will place;
2. would do;
3. would have been;
4. customize;
5. will cancel;
6. spoke;
7. had told;
8. would let;
9. will not place;
10. would not worry.

English Grammar Tenses (upper intermediate) – No.2

 

James Cook (1728-1779)

1. The British explorer James Cook was born in the village of Marton, Yorkshire, on 27 October, 1728. But his family soon (move) to another village, called Great Ayton, where Cook (spend) most of his childhood.
2. As a teenager James Cook (develop) a fascination for the sea and (travel) to Whitby where he (find) employment on a coal ship.
3. While he (serve) in the Royal Navy during the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), Cook (have) the command of a ship.
4. After the war (end) , Cook (take) command of the vessel Grenville and (go) to Newfoundland to survey the coasts there.
5. While he (map) the coasts of Newfoundland, he (observe) a solar eclipse off the North American coast.
6. Cook (send) the details to the Royal Society, England’s leading scientific organisation, and (win) their attention.
7. After Cook (publish) his observations of the solar eclipse, the Royal Society (ask) him to lead a scientific expedition to Tahiti and (put) him in command of of the HMS Endeavour.
8. From Tahiti Cook then (go on) to explore the South Pacific.
9. He also (reach) New Zealand, which only the Dutchman Abel Tasman (visit) before Cook.
10. After Cook (map) New Zealand’s complete coastline, he (sail) to Australia’s east coast.
11. Cook (name) the area New South Wales as it (remind) him of the south coast of Wales in Great Britain.
12. In 1772, one year after Cook (return) from his first voyage to the Pacific, the Royal Society (hire) him for another expedition to find the mythical Terra Australis.
13. On his journey, Cook (discover) several islands and almost (go) as far as the continent of Antarctica.
14. He (make) maps of the South Pacific and (prove) that Terra Australis (exist / not) .
15. His third and last voyage for the Royal Society (take) him to the west coast of North America where he (try) to find a passage between the Atlantic and Pacific.
16. He (not / can / pass) the Bering Strait, however; the ice (force) him to return to Hawaii, which he (discover) earlier.
17. While he and his crew (rest) in Hawaii, some Hawaiians (steal) one of his boats.
18. When cook and his men (try) to get the boat back from the natives, a violent fight (break out) in which the natives (stab) James Cook to death.

Answers:

1. moved, spent
2. developed, travelled, found
3. was serving, had
4. had ended, took, went
5. was mapping, observed
6. sent, won
7. had published, asked, put
8. went on
9. reached, had visited
10. had mapped, sailed
11. named, reminded
12. had returned, hired
13. discovered, went
14. made, proved, did not exist
15. took, tried
16. could not pass, forced, had discovered
17. were resting, stole
18. tried, broke out, stabbed

English Grammar Tenses (upper intermediate) – No.1

 

Bewley’s Oriental Cafés

1. Bewley’s (be) an old Irish tea house chain.
2. The history of the famous Bewley’s Oriental Cafés (begin) in 1835 when Charles Bewley (import) over 2000 chests of tea directly from the Chinese province of Canton to Dublin.
3. It (not / look) like a great deal today, but back then it (be) a coup: no man before (dare) to import tea directly into Ireland.
4. Bewley’s initiative (put) an end to the East India Trading Company’s tea monopoly which before 1835 (force) the Irish to import their tea from London.
5. Samuel Bewley’s son Joshua also (become) a tea merchant.
6. Like his father, he (import) tea into Ireland.
7. The Irish (like) the idea of not having to import old tea from London.
8. A tea expert (notice) that even the poorest Irish people (buy) only the finest tea.
9. By the end of the 19th century a tea culture (develop) in Ireland.
10. In 1894, Joshua’s son Ernest Bewley (want) to stimulate the market for a product that (be) rather unknown that far: coffee.
11. In the back of his shop in Dublin’s George’s Street, he (begin) to run coffee making demonstrations.
12. His wife (bake) scones to go with the coffee, and the couple soon (find out) that their idea (be) extremely popular among customers.
13. That (mark) the beginning of the first Bewley’s Oriental Café.
14. In Dublin’s Grafton Street, Ernest Bewley (open) another Bewley’s Oriental Café in 1927, on which he (spend) nearly 60,000 Pound.
15. Still now the interior furnishings and wonderful stain glass (provide) a very special oriental flair.
16. During World War II, Bewley’s (must restrict) the supply of tea to an ounce per head, and many customers (switch) to coffee.
17. Today, Bewley’s (be) Ireland’s leading supplier of quality coffees and teas.
18. It (create) a catering service for larger customers such as Trinity College and it (open) cafés in book stores and Dublin Airport.
19. Bewley’s Clipper Gold Tea and Espresso Prima (win) Gold Awards in the London Great Taste Awards.

Answers:

1. is
2. imported
3. does not look, had dared
4. had forced
5. became
6. imported
7. liked
8. noticed, bought
9. had developed
10. had been
11. began
12. baked, found out, was
13. marked
14. opened, has spent
15. provided
16. had to restrict, switched
17. is
18. has created, has opened
19. have won

English reading test (Multiple Choice) – No.4

 

Read the passages below carefully.
Then choose the best answer for each of the four questions that follow.

The following are letters to the editor of a school newspaper.

Students should be allowed to study without worrying about grades. Fortunately, most educators are becoming aware of the fact that students have different interests and abilities. However, the regimentation resulting from grades still exists. Grades often stifle creativity. Competing for better grades causes many students to turn down opportunities to pursue music, dramatics and sports. Grades impose an arbitrary standard of success on everyone. I do not demand as some extremists do, that grades be abolished immediately. However, I do believe that less emphasis should be placed on grades. I hope that someday grades will become optional at Village High School.

Magdalena Smith, President,
Drama Club

Let’s face the facts about grades. Grades perform three basic functions. First, grades motivate students to work at their highest level of competence. Second, they act as a reward for hardworking students and as a reprimand to students who do not work hard. Finally, grades are used as an effective standard by which to measure student achievement. Good grades help students to get jobs and to get into university. I’ve spoken with a number of students who have jobs, and most of them say that they were hired primarily on the basis of their grades. My grades helped me land a part-time job and will help me get into university next year. I think grades are extremely important at Village High School.

Simon Harper, Member,
Science Club

 

1. Simon Harper writes from the viewpoint of someone who

(a) wants business to hire more students
(b) believes in the benefits of good grades
(c) is concerned about students’ creativity
(d) supports students’ interests and abilities
(e) doesn’t work too hard at his studies

2. Magdalena Smith thinks it is important for

(a) students to get good jobs
(b) students to participate in music, dramatics, and sports
(c) students to compete more for grades
(d) educators to have more control over grades
(e) students to be reprimanded for not working hard

3. Which of the following states a fact about grades at Village High School?

(a) They are not useful
(b) They stifle creativity
(c) They foster unnecessary competition
(d) They should be optional
(e) They are currently in use

4. Which of the following is NOT an opinion expressed by Magdalena Smith?

(a) Grades should be abolished.
(b) Regimentation results from grades.
(c) Grades impose arbitrary standards of success.
(d) Students should be able to learn without worrying about grades.
(e) Competition may discourage students from pursuing subjects such as drama and art.

 

Answers:

1. B
2. B
3. E
4. A

Use of English Test (Multiple Choice Cloze) – No.3

 

For Questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

Example: (0) A in B at C of D to

No More Classes

The use (0) … computers has meant students can study language programmes (1) … their own speed when and for how long they want – and no need to worry about the teacher having a favourite or doing (2) … another boring lesson. What’s more, in the virtual classrooms of the future the student will (3) … on their headset, and be transported into an imaginary school, choose their class, take the books they need off the shelf and (4) … conversations with other computerised students.
They might (5) … choose to pay a visit to the supermarket or the train station, the bank or the restaurant. At the (6) … of a button they would be transported to (7) … realistic settings where they could practice their English, maybe getting a hand (8) … a virtual English companion. All this perhaps, at the computer, from the comfort of their home: no (9) … to catch the bus to college, or a plane to England.
Exciting? Certainly, and an interesting alternative to traditional classroom lessons. But would it ever (10) … the classroom? Hopefully not. (11) … the need to relate to real people talking about real issues and generally learning a little more about others will always lead language learners to (12) … at least a little of their time with real people.

1 A with B for C at D in
2 A still B for C yet D already
3 A place B put C set D get
4 A take B do C catch D hold
5 A although B preferably C instead D contrary
6 A force B hit C depress D push
7 A so B such C like D alike
8 A with B to C from D for
9 A role B duty C obligation D need
10 A replace B restore C succeed D recover
11 A definitely B mainly C totally D surely
12 A spend B make C have D do

Answers:

1. C
2. C
3. B
4. D
5. C
6. D
7. B
8. C
9. D
10. A
11. D
12. A

Use of English Test (Multiple Choice Cloze) – No.2

 

For Questions 1-15, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

Example: (0) A say B TELL C speak D announce

Write the Perfect Crime Novel

Most people are born with the natural ability to (0) … stories, but only a rare few have the determination to become professional authors, and even fewer have the joy of seeing their novels top the (1) … of bestselling books. Some of the world’s famous crime writers have achieved the (2) … success of all. Who can (3) … the appeal of famous detectives like Sherlock Holmes, Miss Marple or Hercule Poirot? Even if you haven’t read the (4) … books you will have seen them in films or on the TV.
If you have an ambition to become the (5) … Agatha Christie what should you do? The best starting (6) … is to read lots of examples of crime fiction written by good authors. You will need a notebook to carry around with you or, (7) … better, some loose (8) … of paper that you can (9) … notes on and then file into a folder. After all, the most everyday situation – for example, watching a woman get (10) … a train – may be the (11) … for your first bestseller.
Like any good recipe you have to know the main (12) … of a successful novel. These are: an original story, strong characters and a memorable setting.

1 A queue B list C row D line
2 A largest B greatest C highest D prime
3 A deny B refuse C insist D hide
4 A first B initial C early D original
5 A next B following C subsequent D later
6 A spot B tip C point D mark
7 A even B still C very D so
8 A strips B sheets C layers D pieces
9 A complete B do C fill D make
10 A out B down C off D from
11 A notion B idea C invention D inspiration
12 A parts B ingredients C pieces D sections

Answers:

1. B
2. B
3. A
4. D
5. A
6. C
7. A
8. B
9. D
10. C
11. D
12. B

Use of English Test (Multiple Choice Cloze) – No.1

 

For Questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

Example: (0) A situation B place C position D site

Environmental Concerns


Earth is the only (0) … we know of in the universe that can support human life. (1) … human activities are making the planet less fit to live on. As the western world (2) … on consuming two-thirds of the world’s resources while half of the world’s population do so (3) … to stay alive we are rapidly destroying the (4) … resource we have by which all people can survive and prosper. Everywhere fertile soil is (5) … built on or washed into the sea. Renewable resources are exploited so much that they will never be able to recover (6) … We discharge pollutants into the atmosphere without any thought of the consequences. As a (7) … the planet’s ability to support people is being (8) … at the very time when rising human numbers and consumption are (9) … increasingly heavy demands on it.
The Earth’s (10) … resources are there for us to use. We need food, water, air, energy, medicines, warmth, shelter and minerals to (11) … us fed, comfortable, healthy and active. If we are sensible in how we use the resources they will (12) … indefinitely. But if we use them wastefully and excessively they will soon run out and everyone will suffer.

1 A Although B Still C Yet D Despite
2 A continues B repeats C carries D follows
3 A already B just C for D entirely
4 A alone B individual C lone D lonely
5 A sooner B neither C either D rather
6 A quite B greatly C utterly D completely
7 A development B result C reaction D product
8 A stopped B narrowed C reduced D cut
9 A doing B having C taking D making
10 A natural B real C living D genuine
11 A hold B maintain C stay D keep
12 A last B stand C go D remain

 

Answers:

1. C
2. C
3. B
4. D
5. C
6. D
7. B
8. C
9. D
10. A
11. D
12. A

English reading test (Multiple Choice) – No.3

 

Instructions
You are going to read a magazine article about crime prevention. For Questions 1-8, choose the correct answer A, B, C or D.

 

A recent survey of crime statistics shows that we are all more likely to be burgled now than 20 years ago and the police advise everyone to take a few simple precautions to protect their homes.

The first fact is that burglars and other intruders prefer easy opportunities, like a house which is very obviously empty. This is much less of a challenge than an occupied house, and one which is well-protected. A burglar will wonder if it is worth the bother.

There are some general tips on how to avoid your home becoming another crime statistic. Avoid leaving signs that your house is empty. When you have to go out, leave at least one light on as well as a radio or television, and do not leave any curtains wide open. The sight of your latest music centre or computer is enough to tempt any burglar.

Never leave a spare key in a convenient hiding place. The first place a burglar will look is under the doormat or in a flower pot and even somewhere more ‘imaginative’ could soon be uncovered by the intruder. It is much safer to leave a key with a neighbour you can trust. But if your house is in a quiet, desolate area be aware that this will be a burglar’s dream, so deter any potential criminal from approaching your house by fitting security lights to the outside of your house.

But what could happen if, in spite of the aforementioned precautions, a burglar or intruder has decided to target your home? Windows are usually the first point of entry for many intruders. Downstairs windows provide easy access while upstairs windows can be reached with a ladder or by climbing up the drainpipe. Before going to bed you should double-check that all windows and shutters are locked. No matter how small your windows may be, it is surprising what a narrow gap a determined burglar can manage to get through. For extra security, fit window locks to the inside of the window.

What about entry via doors? Your back door and patio doors, which are easily forced open, should have top quality security locks fitted. Even though this is expensive it will be money well spent. Install a burglar alarm if you can afford it as another line of defence against intruders.

A sobering fact is that not all intruders have to break and enter into a property. Why go to the trouble of breaking in if you can just knock and be invited in? Beware of bogus officials or workmen and, particularly if you are elderly, fit a chain and an eye hole so you can scrutinise callers at your leisure. When you do have callers never let anybody into your home unless you are absolutely sure they are genuine. Ask to see an identity card, for example.

If you are in the frightening position of waking in the middle of the night and think you can hear an intruder, then on no account should you approach the intruder. Far better to telephone the police and wait for help.

 

1 A well-protected house:
A is less likely to be burgled.
B is regarded as a challenge by most criminals.
C is a lot of bother to maintain.
D is very unlikely to be burgled.

2 According to the writer, we should:
A avoid leaving our house empty.
B only go out when we have to.
C always keep the curtains closed.
D give the impression that our house is occupied when we go out.

3 The writer thinks that hiding a key under a doormat or flower pot:
A is a predictable place to hide it.
B is a useful place to hide it.
C is imaginative.
D is where you always find a spare key.

4 The ‘aforementioned precautions’ refer to steps that:
A will tell a burglar if your house is empty or not.
B are the most important precautions to take to make your home safe.
C will stop a potential burglar.
D will not stop an intruder if he has decided to try and enter your home.

5 Gaining entry to a house through a small window:
A is surprisingly difficult.
B is not as difficult as people think.
C is less likely to happen than gaining entry through a door.
D is tried only by very determined burglars.

6 According to the writer, window locks, security locks and burglar alarms:
A cost a lot of money but are worth it.
B are good value for money.
C are luxury items.
D are absolutely essential items.

7 The writer argues that fitting a chain and an eye hole:
A will prevent your home being burgled.
B avoids you having to invite people into your home.
C is only necessary for elderly people.
D gives you time to check if the visitor is genuine.

8 The best title for the text is:
A Increasing household crime.
B Protecting your home from intruders
C What to do if a burglar breaks into your home.
D Burglary statistics.

Answers:

1. A
2. D
3. A
4. D
5. B
6. A
7. D
8. B

English reading test (Multiple Choice) – No.2

 

Instructions


You are going to read an article about online safety. For questions 1-8, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

 

BE WEB WISE

Protect your computer, by all means, but don’t forget to protect yourself, advises web safety expert, Amanda Knox.

We’re always being urged to stay safe online. But in an era where the internet is part of our everyday lives – for work, fun, study, shopping, even managing finances – it’s not always easy to spot the dangers. Web safety expert, Amanda Knox, explores some of the issues lurking in cyberspace.

Her first piece of advice is to install software and a firewall to protect your computer from viruses, hackers and criminals who want to steal your data or financial information. “Think of these as your first line of defence,” says Amanda.

So much for protecting yourself against intruders, but what about other problems? Say you’ve accidentally deleted an important file or you’ve been at the mercy of a natural disaster. Katy Marsh runs an online photography business from home and when a fire destroyed part of her house it could easily have spelled ruin for her business too. “Luckily I keep a regular back-up of my data so it wasn’t a catastrophe.” Amanda advises that while back-ups are good to have we must ensure we protect our computers to start with.

Whilst most of us are aware of the need to protect our computers, it seems we’re more lax when it comes to looking out for ourselves, at least according to a recent web awareness survey. Web safety specialists say better personal awareness is needed and this is due in part to the rise of ‘Social Networking’ sites like ‘Bebo’, ‘MySpace’ and ‘Facebook’, which allow us to connect with people around the world with similar interests and professional backgrounds. Chris Simpson, a computer programmer, learnt the hard way. “I joined a free online networking group in the hope of making some professional contacts to help me find a new job. After a month, one of my online contacts invited me to take out a subscription to a club that promised access to a network of job recruiters. It turned out to be a waste of money. I ended up a laughing stock with my mates – they couldn’t believe that someone in my job could get taken in so easily.” No wonder then that Amanda warns, “It’s easy to get complacent and let our guard down when we meet someone with the same interests online.”

This brings us to other potential pitfalls. Are the people you meet online who they really claim to be? Can you be sure the person you’re chatting with is in fact a 22-year-old Maths undergraduate from London and not someone merely masquerading as a student to win your trust? Khaled, a postgrad from Manchester University, quickly realised that it was unwise of him to post his phone number and email address in the public forum of an online academic discussion group. He was soon bombarded with unwanted emails and nuisance phone calls. Yet, it’s astonishing how many highly educated people do this without considering the consequences that anyone in the world could use the information to make (unwanted) contact.

When networking and joining online communities it’s better to be cautious about the amount of personal information you share. For example, it isn’t always necessary to use your real name as a username when registering for a service. You could instead use a pseudonym, or a name that doesn’t give away your real identity to other users. And is it really important to tell the world details about your school, college or any local clubs you’re a member of? Sometimes it pays to be a little vague and simply say something like ‘I’m studying at college in Madrid at the moment and I’m a member of a local tennis club’.

If you do experience problems from another user be prepared to report them for misusing the service. You’ll be doing other users a favour too. And if all else fails, check to see if it is easy to delete your account and leave the service if you choose to and that you have the option to delete all your details.

A general rule of thumb is not to post any information about yourself that you would not be happy for the world to know – not just now but in years to come. This includes photographs of yourself, particularly embarrassing shots of you at that party which you may later regret! It’s not always easy to remove information after it’s been posted so you – not to mention your future employer – may have an unpleasant surprise a few years down the line.

 

1. In the second paragraph the phrase ‘first line of defence’ suggests something
A is the only option.
B offers protection.
C is an instruction.
D shows weakness.

2. The effect of the fire was
A worse for Katy’s business than her home.
B to ruin Katy’s business.
C not as serious for Katy’s business as it could have been.
D to make Katy start to back up her data.

3. According to the web awareness survey, our attitude to our personal safety is rather
A relaxed.
B concerned.
C positive.
D uncertain.

4. Chris first joined the networking group
A because it promised him a job.
B in order to make friends and have fun.
C to assist him in a job search.
D because it didn’t cost him anything.

5. Regarding Khaled’s experience, the writer is surprised that
A people telephone complete strangers.
B people don’t think of the results of their actions online.
C university students take part in online discussions.
D people sent emails to Khaled without asking permission.

6. What tip does the writer give for joining an online community?
A Always use a false name.
B Make sure you are properly registered.
C Limit the information you give to others.
D Tell other users where you’re studying.

7. The writer says that you should report troublesome users
A because other people will benefit.
B so you can stop using the service.
C only if nothing else works.
D if you want to delete your own details.

8. In the final paragraph, the writer advises people
A not to put photos online.
B to apply for a job online.
C not to have any personal information online.
D to consider what may cause problems in the future.

Answers:

1. B
2. C
3. A
4. C
5. B
6. C
7. A
8. D

English reading test (Multiple Choice) – No.1

 

Instructions


You are going to read an extract from a writer’s journal. For Questions 1-8, choose the correct answer A, B, C or D.

Extract


Six months ago I made a rash promise. The leader of the youth club in our village rang me in March saying, “We’re thinking of running a children’s playscheme for a day in October half-term. Would you be prepared to help?” My response was “Sure, why not?” In truth I was a little flattered to be asked, even though working as a care assistant with old people hardly qualified me for the role. Still, I duly put the date in my diary and of course I forgot all about it. I don’t know if you’ve noticed this but time has a habit of speeding along faster than a police car chasing a robber and, before I knew it, the day was dawning.

I arrived at the youth centre that morning feeling full of trepidation. There was a gang of 12 helpers including me and each pair had been allocated a particular age group. Mine was the 10 to 11 year olds. Even with the planning meeting I had attended the week before, I worried about whether I was up to the task. Why hadn’t I read through the copious lesson plans we were given beforehand? And wasn’t the average 10-year-old more interested in the latest Play Station game than making things with paper and glue?

All too quickly the children began arriving. The look of relief on parents’ faces as they handed their offspring over to us was quite comical. A handful of the children were already members of the club but the other forty five or so were from the local primary schools. Again I asked myself why I had elected to spend a day with all these ‘little monsters’ especially when I have two all of my own to contend with!

I needn’t have worried of course as it turned out to be a marvellous day. We watched entertaining dvd clips, learned ‘action’ songs, made clay pyramids, decorated biscuits, played memory games and spent some time in quiet reflection. I say ‘we’ because I rediscovered my inner child and joined in all the activities.

The particular highlight for me was the final rendition of “He’s got the whole world in his hands” in the closing part of the day. The children knew the words and actions off by heart and sang so loudly it was almost enough to bring the roof down. It’s difficult to explain those moments; only that the body tingles with the pleasure of having witnessed something so magical.

Of course there were also moments of great poignancy. I found it difficult to stop thinking of one little girl, who mentioned oh-so-casually that her mum was in hospital and would be there for a long time. It’s easy for us adults to idealise childhood and forget that some children have their own burden of anxieties and concerns. When I got home utterly exhausted, still with modelling clay under my fingernails, I reflected on what a privilege it had been.

There was one disappointment for the children and that was that the playscheme was only running for a day, and not the whole week. As I said farewell to my group, one of the children turned and said “Can we do it again in the next holiday, Miss?” My response was, “Sure, why not?”

1. When the offer of the job was made the writer
a) felt she had made a mistake to agree.
b) thought she had appropriate experience for the job.
c) believed she shouldn’t have been asked.
d) gave the impression she wasn’t sure about accepting the job.

2. When the day arrived the writer was surprised
a) that the day had come round so quickly.
b) because she’d forgotten to write down the date.
c) because she witnessed a car chase on the way.
d) that she woke up at dawn.

3. When the writer arrived to start her job she
a) put the children into pairs.
b) realised she should have done more preparation.
c) felt confident she could deal with 10 and 11 year olds.
d) saw the children had brought their own electronic games to play with.

4. According to the writer, the parents were
a) happy to stay with their children all day.
b) worried about children from the other schools.
c) nervous that their children might not behave themselves.
d) glad to leave their children.

5. The writer needn’t have worried because
a) the children were quiet during the day.
b) the children weren’t doing messy activities.
c) she had fun herself.
d) the time passed quickly.

6. The writer’s best moment
a) occurred in the middle of the day.
b) took her by surprise.
c) was hard to put into words.
d) was when the day was over.

7. According to the writer, adults
a)think that being a child is a privilege.
b) sometimes forget that children have worries too.
c) are usually exhausted by bringing up their children.
d) don’t have a stressful life.

8. What is the writer’s attitude by the end of the day?
a) She could imagine doing the job again next time.
b) She was sad to say good bye to the chidlren.
c) She was disappointed with the experience.
d) She hopes the playscheme will be longer in future.

Answers:

1. a)
2. a)
3. b)
4. d)
5. c)
6. c)
7. b)
8. a)

Saving energy and water/ studying environment (anglų kalbos įskaitos tema) Nr.2

 

The world – having all countries ( world) in mind, taking a global look at the environmental problems and economic development.
Economic development – industralization, transition from an agricultural society to one based on industry.
Limit – limit the growth of economic factories both in developed and developing world up to the level of society”s basic needs.

My goal in limiting economic development and protecting the environment is stability.

Both environmental and economic situations are not stable enough now. Because of industry there is overuse of natural resources such as natural gas, coal, petroleum. This overproduction causes environmental problems such as depletion of natural resources, the overuses of electricity causes air pollution, which has an impact on ozone layer and climate change.
The overproduction of goods is caused because of market economy. In market economy the more production you produce the lower the prices become. The goal of market economy is profit; so we have this overproduction.
I understand the ecological problems exist. And I wouldn’t like to argue how big they are or what impact they might have in the future. But as I’m seeking for stability, I don’t want to let those problems increase.
And to achieve this goal I’ll offer a plan. As the economic and environmental situations are different in various countries, I’ll divide the world into two parts.
First of all I’ll explain you how it should be set in developed countries. Second of all I’ll explain how it should be set in developing countries. And the third thing I’ll do, I’ll be explaining consequences and advantages of the plan.
Developed countries
In developed countries there is a huge overuse of production so I offer to make regulations and restrictions in oder to limit the overuse of the production. Though these restrictions should not be too drastic, for the ecological situation in the developed countries is not critical, but it’s still not good and stable. We all know that there laws in the developed countries in oder to protect the environment but they don’t work enough. Most of the conferences taken are just theories, for they haven’t made any regulations in oder to protect the environment. As an example the Kyoto Summit (1992) which decided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2,5% by the year 2005 but nothing has been done recently. Earth Summit (Rio de Janeiro 1992), Orchus Convention (Denmark 1998), the Conference of London 1999: all of them didn’t do enough as I don’t consider only discussing environmental problems to be enough. I’m offering to create laws and regulations through governments.
Developing countries
Also new laws and regulations should be worked out in oder to protect the developing countries from the old technologies that the developed countries provide the with. Old technology causes the pollution which damages the environment. So setting these laws we’ll limit the import of old technologies and that’s already limiting of economy. And this will make the situation stable between economy and environment.
My conclusion has to follow I understand that my plan will not solve all the environmental problems but my goal is to keep the situation stable, it’s just the first step. We will not have overproduction in developed countries, we’ll have modern technologies in developing countries and they have higher needs. I’d like to name the advantages of my plan. We’ll not have big job losses, which deal with social and economic problems, because everything will be doing gradually in oder to achieve stability.
There are examples of saving both nature and money.
In a world of change not everyone can remain advantaged (Timothy Wirth the U.S. Undersecretary of State for Global Affairs).

Relationships/ summer holidays (anglų kalbos kalbėjimo tema) Nr.2

 
Relationships
 

People have different characters and interests, so their communication and relationship are different. Persons character influences relationship between two individuals.
relationships in a family where children and parents live happily together are harmonic and sincere. They can reveal all their secrets to each other and be understood. But I don’t think that there are many families where such harmony prevails.
My relationship with parents is not very good, because I’m a teenager and I want to be free and independent. My parents want me just to sit at home and do homework or some extra learning, so we argue a lot. But sometimes we spend beautiful days together as a united family.
Friends are the best thing which life gave us. Everyone wants to have friends to speak to, to tell secrets or have fun with. I think to be a good friend means to be faithful, reliable and sincere. I have four best friends. They are equally important to me. They are very friendly, have a good sense of humor, always help in a trouble and I know that I can trust them.
People can find friends everywhere. We met our first friends in a kinder-garden, then we get acquainted with new friends when we come to school. But we can find them not only in these places, we can find friends in dubs, theatres and everywhere where we are among people.
Some teenagers have a lot of problems with their parents. The most common problem is desire to be independent. Sometimes they argue because of the pocket money, permission to come home late or their studies. But parents are usually strict in this field.
The most common problems among teenagers are drug and alcohol abuse. Sometimes it can be a bad influence of friends or they want to try something new.
In general I can say that relationship with human beings is a part of our life and communication with each person is unique.

Learning english/ my future job (anglų kalbėjimo tema) Nr.3

 

First of all I’d like to say that Learning foreign languages is especially important nowadays.
Some people learn languages because they need them in their work, others travel abroad. Every year many people go to different countries as tourists or to work. They may not understand that countries language, therefore they have to know english, the language of international communication. Scientests, diplomats, politicions have to know english very well, because they need foreign language in their work. So, a modern and a cultural person must learn foreign languages. They are socially demanded, especially at the present time when the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge.
english language is needed as the main means of information exchange of the people of our planet. Today english is the language of the world. It is the major international language of communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. It is also the major language of diplomacy and the universal language of International aviation, shipping and sports. Half of the world’s scientific literature is written in english. It is the language of literature, education, modern music, international tourism.
I’d like to finish by saying that english today is absolutely necessary for every educated person, so if to talk about myself I will study it very atentively in the future too.

Learning english/ my future job (anglų kalbėjimo tema) Nr.2

 

The choice of the future profession is a very delicate topic. A young boy or girl has little knowledge about the world of grown-ups. But if you listen only to other people advices without considering your tastes, preferences, talents and character, it will be only you to be blamed for the wrong choice. It is so difficult to decide, and you should keep in mind that wrong choice will result in many problems both for you and your family.

Choosing a profession you should take into consideration many factors.
The first is your talents, gifts, abilities. If somebody is good at languages, likes reading and writing, writes poems or articles for the school newspaper, he can make a good journalist or writer. But if the person is good at science and mathematics but can`t connect few words his writer`s career is impossible. So you should think not only about pros of the future job but also about if you manage to do it well.

Moreover, it is necessary to realize the advantages and possible disadvantages of the profession you have chosen. The profession can be well-paid , can give you freedom to create and be very interesting, but it can at the same time require your traveling a lot, learning Chinese or working late. If these conditions are not acceptable for you, choose another profession. To my mind the worst situation – to be torn apart between your job and your nature. It seems to be better to choose something simpler, something that will not irritate you every day.

As for me, question of choosing the future profession perturbs me greatly. After long doubts I have decided to become a hotel administrator, my future plans include opening my own hotel, recreation company abroad or something like that, as I am good at languages, I like communicating with people from different countries, having various cultures. Why have I chosen exactly this occupation, not a translator or guide which are also connected with language knowing? Simply because I would like to access power, not be dependent and feeling inferior to others. So, personal freedom in one of the most important factors for me.

Free time. tv/ my future house (anglų įskaitos tema) Nr.2

From my point of view, to have a dream means to have a path. A path which you follow most of your life and make all your efforts to fulfil your ambitions. As the topic is about the dream house, let me discuss about the way I see my future home.

Firstly, the location of the building is very important because what makes the home perfect is the opportunity to relax and get away from the troubles of your business life. So, my dream house would be located somewhere near the seashore, as a sound of the waves makes you feel calm.

Furthermore, to clarify the surroundings of my imaginary living place, I must say that there would be a large garden, full of various plants and decorations. Mostly important, I could hardly imagine my dream home place without a wooden bathhouse and a small path to the sea.

Such neat surroundings would present about not less convenient inside of the house. My criteria before architecting the building would be space. I would choose spacious rooms without a great number of walls. Of course, it would be a two-storey building decorated with claret bricks and the roof of brown tilling. In order to give the impression of freedom my dream house would have a lot of wide windows facing a picturesque view of the sea, pine forest and the garden. All the rooms would flow in bright colours, would not lack of carpets and curtains, which make the house warm. My dream house would contain both modern technologies and old-fashioned details. For example, I would enjoy having a fireplace and a basement designed in an old style. But of course I would not reject all the technologies which make our life more convenient and pleasant.

In conclusion, a dream house can’t be created by all those things mentioned above. What makes a house homelike is its atmosphere which can only be inspired by the residents of the place. As long as the people, you’ll be living with, were not the ones of your dreams, neither the garden nor the fireplace would make your house of your dreams.

My personal goals/ going to the cinema (anglų kalbėjimo tema) Nr.3

Such forms of entertainment like books, theater, and sports games were known even in antiquity. Circuses, funfairs, carnivals, roller – coasters and carrousels were made up many years ago as well, whereas cinema came into being only in the end of nineteenth century. Lumiere brothers demonstrated the very first motion picture in 1895. The earliest films were very short and soundless. Usually the performances of silent films were accompanied by live piano music. First movies with synchronized sound came in sight thirty years later. These films are called ‘talkies’. Sometimes they are sub – titled or dubbed so that people who don’t understand the language could understand the film. Nowadays cinema grew into a great industry. Producers, directors and the cast earn a lot of money. Actors are nearly gods for teenagers. Almost every family has a TV set. Cinema turned up recently, developed rapidly and insensibly became an important part of our lives. Going to the cinema is one of the best ways of spending our leisure time. It’s a wonderful way to meet your friends and the main thing – sophistication!

My personal goals/ going to the cinema (anglų kalbėjimo tema) Nr.2

Going to the cinema is one of the most popular way of spending free time. Nowadays we have quite large range of cinamas and we can choose desirable movie from large quantity of movies offered.

I always feel excited to go watching a movie in the cinema. I think it’s because when since childhood, it had been an exciting event for me to watch cartoon or Walt Disney movie. My parents usually will bring me there occasionally especially when there is a good film release. Sometimes, I found that some of my friends do not seem to be anticipating new movies as I am. Possibly they do not have great interest in watching movie or they did not enjoy watching movie since childhood. But if I go to watch movie, I won’t go alone. I’ve never been to the cinema alone, but I think it’s something I really want to do. It’d be scary for me as I don’t have a lot of confidence, but I think it’s a good thing to do to promote your independence.
Today we can download movies or watch movies on the internet, but still I miss the feeling in the cinema, drink cola, eatting popcorn, etc… memories go back to childhood. Going to the cinema is the most excited way for fun. The main goald of mine of going to the cinema – to expand horizon, to acquire new experience and knowlegge.

Let‘s protect the Baltic Sea (Anglų įskaita 2010) Nr.2

 

Baltic Sea Gets Special Protection

One of the world’s most extraordinary seas was finally given the protection it desperately deserves when the International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated the Baltic Sea as a “Particularly Sensitive Sea Area” (PSSA) during its meeting in London on April 2, 2004.

Designating an area as a PSSA requires ships to take special care when navigating through such areas, and enables coastal states and the IMO to agree on the best protective measures. It’s a tool that WWF has long been promoting to protect the Baltic Sea from a major oil accident.

Russia had enlisted the support of Panama and Liberia in an effort to block the proposed designation of the Baltic Sea and two other areas — the Galapagos and the Canary Islands — as PSSAs. Despite this, the PSSA applications for all three areas were accepted by the IMO.

WWF activists played a key role in this success, sending nearly 10,000 emails to urge the United States to support the proposal.

“The enthusiastic response from WWF activists was instrumental in achieving our goals to protect this unique marine environment and its species, such as seals, harbor porpoises, and sea birds from the disastrous effects of oil accidents,” said Päivi Rosqvist, Head of Communications, WWF Finland.

The Baltic is one of the planet’s smallest seas yet one of its busiest in terms of marine traffic, making oil spills a serious threat to this fragile and biologically diverse ecosystem. A major route for migratory birds, the Baltic is also home to marine mammals like grey seals, Baltic ringed seals, and threatened harbor porpoises, and many other creatures. In addition, an oil spill would harm fisheries and tourism, and prohibit the recreational use of the coastal areas for years to come — as occurred with the huge Prestige tanker oil spill off the coast of Spain in 2003.

Designating the Baltic as a PSSA will pave the way for special safety measures to reduce the risk of oil accidents. Moreover, striking a balance between shipping and the protection of the marine environment in the Baltic will contribute to environmentally sound and sustainable maritime transport systems well beyond the Baltic region.

WWF is now encouraging the Baltic Sea states to develop and propose effective associated protective measures to increase the safety of shipping on the Baltic Sea.

Let‘s protect the Baltic Sea (Anglų įskaita 2010) Nr.1

Protection of the Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is the youngest sea on the planet and is a unique marine brackish-water ecosystem. It is a semi-enclosed sea and thus highly sensitive to pollution, as there is little exchange of water through the Danish Straits with the neighbouring North Sea. The Baltic Sea also receives heavy pollutant loads from the bordering countries. In addition, the increasing oil transport in the Baltic Sea poses a particular risk to the ecosystem.

Particularly Sensitive Sea Area
In 2005 the Baltic Sea, with the exception of Russian waters and the Russian economic zone, was designated a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The PSSA status includes special protective measures to control international maritime activities. The Baltic Sea has also been defined as a “special area” according to several annexes to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78), which means stricter requirements for maritime transport than in other areas.

Finland’s Programme for the Protection of the Baltic Sea
In 2002 the Finnish Government approved Finland’s Programme for the Protection of the Baltic Sea. In June 2005 the Ministry of the Environment approved an action plan that presents the actions needed to meet the objectives of the programme. By adopting these two instruments, Finland also implements the 1995 Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) coordinated by UNEP.

According to Finland’s Programme for the Protection of the Baltic Sea, in order to achieve a good ecological state in the Baltic Sea, steps must be taken both nationally and internationally in six main areas. These areas are combating eutrophication, decreasing the risks of hazardous substances, curbing the risks caused by various uses of the Baltic Sea, preserving and increasing biodiversity, increasing environmental awareness, and research and follow-up.

Research
The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) operates its Research Programme for the Protection of the Baltic Sea.

The most serious problem in the Finnish coastal waters is eutrophication. In December 2004, the Finnish National Commission on Sustainable Development discussed ways and means of reducing eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. A background document was prepared for the meeting entitled “Curbing eutrophication in the Baltic Sea”.